Materials for reasoning on one side.

Primary Base verosykw*

Child Elements  


Name/Link Type Source/Type Consumption Date



Certificate Indication of record. Warrant, credential, diploma, voucher, certificate, docket; testamur [L.]; record [See Record]; muniments; document; pièce justificative [F.]; deed, warranty (security) [See Security]; exhibit; citation, reference, quotation; admission (assent) [See Assent].

Counter Evidence

Counter Evidence Evidence on the other side, on the other hand. Disproof; refutation [See Confutation]; negation [See Negation]; conflicting evidence.
Plea; vindication.


Demonstration Reasoning validated with evidence or experiment. Proof, irrefragability; conclusiveness &c. adj.; apodeixis or apodixis, probation, comprobation [obs.].

Materials for Reasoning

Evidence (material on one side)

Counter Evidence. (material on the other side, countering material)


Limitation, modification, coloring.

Allowance, grains of allowance, consideration, extenuating circumstances; mitigation.

Condition, proviso, exception; exemption; salvo [rare], saving clause; discount [See Discount]; restriction.

Degrees of Evidence

Base Term Gloss Alternatives
cert* Certainty Definite existence of evidence.
bund* Probability Likely existence of evidence. Likelihood.
poß* Possibility Possible existence of evidence. Potentiality, potency.
certew* Uncertainty Possible existence of counterevidence.
bundew* Improbability Likely existence of counterevidence.
poßew* Impossibility Definite existence of counterevidence.


PRACTICABILITY, feasibility, workability, workableness; practicableness &c. adj.

CONTINGENCY, chance [See Chance].



Credibleness; likeness &c. adj.; vraisemblance [F.], verisimilitude, plausibility; color, semblance, show of; presumption; presumptive -, circumstantial- evidence; credibility.
reasonable -, fair -, good -, favorable- -chance, - prospect; prospect, well- grounded hope; chance [See Chance].


Certainty (definite existence of evidence)

Necessity]; certitude, sureness, surety, assurance.

Infallibility, reliability, reliableness; indubitableness, inevitableness, unquestionableness.

Fact (absolute certainty).

Uncertainty (possible existence of counterevidence)

Fallability (capacity for uncertainty); unreliability, unreliableness, untrustworthiness; precariousness.

Hesitation, suspense, state of suspense; perplexity, embarrassment, dilemma, bewilderment; botheration [colloq.]; puzzle, quandary; timidity (fear) [See Fear]; vacillation [See Irresolution]; aporia, diaporesis, indetermination; sealed orders.


Testimony, testification; attestation; affirmation, declaration; deposition [See Affirmation]; examination.