Syntax involves how words are arrayed into sentences, so it includes word order and constructions that depend on separate words or particles.

What order do the components of a noun phrase appear in?

What order do the components of a sentence appear in?

Flexible word order: Syntactical position is denoted by inflections.

How do you form yes-no questions?

How about other questions?

How do you negate a sentence?

How do conjunctions work?

  • As separate words (… kwek …)
  • As prefixes (rubosis kweqelbosis red and (also) yellow)

How do you form subclauses?

Some options:

  • Sentential arguments, where a verb takes an entire sentences as its subject (“That Grandma’s drunk suprises me”) or object (“He believes that you’re crazy”).
  • Special subordinators may form place and time adverbials: “when/where you were born”
  • A preposition can take a sentence as its object: “after you were born”
  • A sentence can modify a noun, forming a relative clause: “the man who ate a horse”

Transformations

Style

More Topics in Syntax