Noun Perspective

Mass nouns may be taken as substances which appear homogenous at ordinary distances. We can mentally zoom in to see the individual constituents.

Similarly we can zoom out and group individual items into collectives. This may be done lexically or syntactically.

Verb Perspective

Verbs can be divided into those that focus on an instance (e.g. dying, saying) or a process (e.g. sleeping, believing).

Some instance verbs correlate to processes that are perceived as instances at a distance. In fact, virtually any process can be perceived given a sufficient distance.

Continuity: For processes, we can focus on the initiation (beginning) or termination (end) of the process.

Either type of action can be repeated; this may be expressed with a frequentive.


Locative adpositions are ambiguous between a static viewpoint and a dynamic one.

A moving perspective may be implied even if nothing is physically moving.

A pair of words may differ only by argument order: that is, the same situation is described from differing points of view. (buying versus selling; coming versus going; parentage versus filiation).