Elemental structure: Hilinqwo words are built from a collection of elements of varying types. Raw Hilinqwo elements are not allowed in Hilinqwo text. All wildcards must be replaced with the appropriate endings, and raw suffixes (replacing the dash wildcard with nothing) are meaningless.

Each type of element has rules for combining with other elements and particles to form words.

Agglutination: Each element has, ideally, one meaning. Ideally there is no synonymism. At best only minimal synonymism with no exact duplicates. Words that appear to be synonyms have a subtle or functional difference.

Hilinqwo promotes the creation of new roots for specific meanings over using derivation to create new bases that are more than two syllables long. The belief is that there are enough sources for roots to create new roots. Derivations, where synonymous with roots, have nuances in meaning that come from their component elements.

Classification: Hilinqwo defines a collection of classes that represent grammatical, semantic and pragmatic concepts. Each element is assigned to one or more classes. Grammatical, semantic and pragmatic rules are applied to each element based on its class membership.

Parts of speech: In a technical sense, Hilinqwo does not have nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs—only elements from which words are made. However, there are paradigns for nouns, verbs, pronouns, prepositions and other parts of speech.


Hilinqwo supports a rich variety of word transformations, most of which take place via prefixes and suffixes. Some of the supported transformations include:

Both prefix and suffix modifiers can change the class of a base. The general rule is that functional transformation should occur from suffixes and semantic transformation should come from prefixes. Exceptions to this general rule should have some etymological basis.

Word Formation

Words are formed by attaching suffixes to bases to denote parts of speech, tense, and case.

To see it in practice, consider the sentence Celerosis brunosis lpos saltat uperir piqrin kanon ("The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dogs.").

Word Celerosis brunosis lpos saltat uperir piqrin kanaron.
Part of speech Subject adjective Subject adjective Subject Verb (past tense) Preposition Adjective on indirect object Indirect object
Meaning "Quick" "(having the color) brown" "fox" "jumped" "over" "lazy" "dog(s)"

Concatenation of Elements

If the idea of concatenating prefixes and suffixes onto base elements seems confusing or complicated, get used to it. Speakers of English and many other languages should already be comfortable with the concept, as it occurs regularly in those languages.

Consider the word "antidisestablishmentarianism." This sesquipedalian word is a prime example of the concept.1. It is nothing more than a base word with a number of modifying prefixes and suffixes attached. One who is proficient in English can break it down to analyze and determine the meaning:

Element Meaning
anti- Opposed to, against.
dis- Having a privative, negative, or reversing force.
establish To institute, install, bring about permanently.
-ment Constructor that turns a verb into its noun of action.
-ism Ideology, belief, movement.

This is an extreme example of element concatenation in English, yet most if not all of the elements should be familiar to fluent English speakers. Likewise, once Hilinqwo speakers should become fluent in the most common prefixes and suffixes of the language, they should have no trouble using them to make complex Hilinqwo words.

More Topics in Morphology