A modifier is an element (base, prefix or suffix) that can transform any element according to a rule. Some modifiers can transform any element. Other modifiers can transform only elements of one or more specific classes.

Examples of some modifiers:

Modifier Applicable Elements Resulting Class Meaning
-os* Any base. ess Having.
-ew* Any base. abe sta itg Lack, want, insufficiency.
d* Any base. dat ac To give.
-end* Any base. dat pa To receive.
-emp* Any base. abl ac To take.
lv* Any base. abl pa To lose.