Conversational maxims

How words are used in conversation, particulary inquiries and responses.

Lexical implicatures

Implicatures neatly address some puzzling aspects of quantifiers, among other things. For example, "some" generally means "at least one but not all." However, consider "some… in fact, all…".


Presuppositions are classically defined as inferences that survive negation of a sentence.

Like lexical implicatures, presuppostions can be denied, though with restrictions. For instance, an outright denial following a positive statement is anomalous. More precisely, then, there are contexts or special circumstances under which the presupposition can be removed.