This is a list of grammatical classes that are used by inflectional languages. Most of these are separate elements in Hilinqwo and are used through modification and derivation.

This list uses ∂œk* as a translation for house.

Place and Time

Note: Most cases used for location and motion can be used for time as well.

Location

Case Usage English Example Hilinqwo Element Hilinqwo Example
Adessive (ad) Adjacent location. near/at/by the house -ad* ∂œkad*
Apudessive (ap) Location next to something. next to the house
Inessive (in) Inside something. inside the house -in* ∂œkin*
Intingent (inting) Not in contact with something. not touching the house -ap* ∂œkap*
Intrative (intra) Between something. between the houses b*
-isþm* "space/interval between"
∂œkob* "between (the) houses"
∂œkisþm* "space/interval between houses"
Locative (loc) Location. at/on/in the house
Pertingent (pert) In contact with something. touching the house -ep* ∂œkep*
Subessive (sub) Under something. under/below the house ndr* ∂œkondr*
Superessive (super) On the surface of something. on (top of) the house

Motion From

Case Usage English Example Hilinqwo Element Hilinqwo Example
Ablative (abl) Movement away from something. away from the house
Delative (del) Movement from the surface. from (the top of) the house
Egressive (eg) Marking the beginning of a movement or time. beginning from the house
starting at the house
Elative (el) Out of something; forth from something. out of the house
forth from the house
Initiative () Starting point of an action. beginning from the house
starting at the house

Motion To

Case Usage English Example Hilinqwo Element Hilinqwo Example
Allative (all) Movement towards. toward the house
Illative (ill) Movement into. into the house
Lative () Movement to something. to/into the house
Sublative () Movement onto the surface or below something. on(to) the house
under the house
Terminative () Marking the end of a movement or time. as far as the house

Motion Via

Case Usage English Example Hilinqwo Element Hilinqwo Example
Perlative () Movement through or along. through/along the house
Prolative1 () Movement using a surface or way. by way of/through the house vj* ∂œkovj*

Time

Case Usage English Example Hilinqwo Element Hilinqwo Example
Temporal () Specifies a time. at seven o'clock
at Christmas
Accusative () Indicates duration of time for 200 years
for many years
Essive () Specifies days and dates when something happens. on the 12th of December

Correlative Table

interior surface adjacency state
from Elative Delative Ablative Exessive
at/in Inessive Superessive Adessive Essive
(in)to Illative Sublative Allative Translative
via Perlative Prolative

Morphosyntactic Alignment

For meanings of the terms agent, patient, experiencer, and instrument, see [[thematic relation]].

Case Usage English Example Hilinqwo Element Hilinqwo Example
Absolutive () (1) Patient, experiencer; subject of an intransitive verb and direct object of a transitive verb. he pushed the door and it opened
Absolutive () (2) Patient, involuntary experiencer. he pushed the door and it opened; he slipped
Absolutive () (3) Patient; experiencer; instrument. he pushed the door with his hand and it opened
Accusative () (1) Patient he pushed the door and it opened
Accusative () (2) Direct object of a transitive verb; made from; about; for a time I see her Eqos okit þißom.
Agentive () Agent, specifies or asks about who or what; specific agent that is subset of a general topic or subject. It was she who committed the crime.
As for him, his head hurts.
Ergative () Agent; subject of a transitive verb. He pushed the door and it opened.
Instructive Means, answers question how? by means of the house vj* ∂œkovj*
Instrumental Instrument, answers question using which thing? with the house vj* ∂œkovj*
Nominative () (1) Agent, experiencer; subject of a transitive or intransitive verb. he pushed the door and it opened
Nominative () (2) Agent; voluntary experiencer he pushed the door and it opened; she paused
Objective () (1) Direct or indirect object of verb I saw her.
I gave her the book.
Eqos okit þißom.
Objective/Oblique (2) Direct or indirect object of verb or object of preposition; a catch-all case for any situation except nominative or genitive. I saw her; I gave her the book; with her.
Oblique () All-round case; any situation except nominative or vocative. concerning the house -arj* ∂œkarj*
Intransitive/Passive/Patient () The subject of an intransitive verb or the logical complement of a transitive verb. The door opened.
Pegative () Agent in a clause with a dative argument. He gave the book to him.

Relation

Case Usage English Example Hilinqwo Element Hilinqwo Example
Ablative () All-round indirect case. concerning the house -arj* ∂œkarj*
Aversive () Avoiding or fear. avoiding the house
Benefactive () For, for the benefit of, intended for for the house -arj* ∂œkarj*
Causal () Because, because of. because of the house
Comitative () In company of something with the house komir hin ∂œkon
Dative () Shows direction or recipient. for/to the house
Distributive () Distribution by piece. per house
Genitive () Shows relationship, possession. of the house
Ornative () Endowment with something. equipped with a house
Possessed () Possession by something the house is owned by someone pr* ∂œkos prit wom
Possessive () Direct possession of something owned by the house pr* prid ∂œkon
Privative () Lacking something. without a house -ew* (n) ∂œkewos*
Semblative () Similarity to something like a house
resembling a house
-œd* ∂œkœd*
Sociative () Along with something, together with something with the house

Semantics

Case Usage English Example Hilinqwo Element Hilinqwo Example
Partitive () Used for amounts three houses
three of the houses
treji ∂œko
motreji ∂œko
Vocative () Addressing someone, with or without a preposition. Hey, (my) father!
O (my) father!
Express form Patrœ! (Mepatrœ!)

State

Case Usage English Example Hilinqwo Element Hilinqwo Example
Abessive () The lack of something. the lack of a house -ew* ∂œkew*
Adverbial () Being as something. as a house
Comparative () Similarity with something. similar to the house
Equative () Comparison with something. like the house -œd* (hi)∂œkœd*
Essive () (Temporary) state of being. as the house
- Essive-formal () State of being as a kind of shape. as a house
- Essive-modal () State of being as a way/manner/state of being. as a house
Exessive () Marking a transition from a condition from being a house (i.e., "it stops being a house")
Identitive() State of being identical to something. being the house ß* ∂œkoß*
Orientative () Oriented towards something. turned towards the house -ert* ∂œkert*
Revertive () Backwards to something. against the house
Translative () Change of a condition into another (transforming) into a house ft* ∂œkoft*