Definition Indicates the number of arguments that an element can have.

Child Supergroups

Class Name Status Definition


Abbr. Group Name Status Definition
2v Bivalent Group ACTIVE Elements that take two arguments.
cv Custom Valence Group ACTIVE Elements that take four or more arguments.
0v Nonvalent Group POTENTIAL Elements that have no arguments.
3v Trivalent Group ACTIVE Elements that take three arguments (subject, direct object and indirect object).
1v Univalent Group ACTIVE Elements that take one and only one argument (subject).

Details and Notes


In linguistics, verb valency or valence refers to the number of arguments controlled by a verbal predicate.

There are several types of valency:

  • impersonal (avalent, 0v) No determinate subject. "it rains," "it is raining"
  • intransitive (monovalent, 1v) A determine subject. "he sleeps"
  • transitive (divalent, 2v) A determine subject and a direct object. "he kicks the ball"
  • ditransitive (trivalent, 3v) A determine subject, a direct object and an indirect object. "he gave her a flower"
  • polytransitive A determinate subject, a direct object, and any number of direct objects. "I bet him a dollar on a horse at the racetrack."

Hilinqwo elements can have any number of arguments. The classes of the Valency group indicate the valency of the element.

Valency indicators:
First -s (-os, -is, -as) Subject.
Second -m (-om, -im, -am) Direct object.
Additional -n (-on, -in, -an) Indirect object(s),

For elements that have four or more arguments, use positional suffixes to distinguish between indirect objects

Valency by Class

Zero arguments: Default.
One argument: [[[class:sta]], cau, gen
Two arguments by default: dat, abl

Types of Valence

Allative Action, motion or application towards something else. "I am bringing spaghetti to the potluck dinner."
Illative Action, motion or application into something else. "Let's go inside the house."
Elative Action, motion or application out of something else. "He came from under the tree."